What is Qur’an?

QUR’AN is an Arabic word derived basically from two root words

QHIR’ATUN and QHARYUN.

  • Qhir’atunmeans something that is recited or read again and again in an organized manner
  • Qharyun means something that contains all the necessities of life

QUR’AN is the religious Scripture and the Primary Source of all information concerning Islam. It was given to Muhammad(s) as a Revelation from Allah from 610C.E. to about 632C.E., a period of about 23 lunar years or about 22 solar years.

Perfectly suitable to its meaning, Qur’an is the only religious or otherwise book that is read maximally on the face of the earth by billions of Muslims on a daily basis, either directly from the Book or recited during five obligatory Prayers of the Muslims called as Sala’h – The 2nd Pillar of Islam. There is no other religious or otherwise book in the world, that is read as much as the Qur’an and also by maximum people. Also, perfectly true to its other meaning, of Clear Signs to detail all necessities of life, the Qur’an contains Teachings pertaining to Most Successful Economy System, Political System, Human Rights Education, Practical and Reasonable Approach to Unity in Diversity, Concept of Just War, Rational approach and not dogmas or blind following to Accept in Allah as the Only God, Purpose of Life, Reasoning for Hereafter based on Scientific Approach, Most Polished Justice System, Establishing Criminal Laws to minimize Crime of every form, Balanced Family Laws, Duties and Responsibilities towards each other based on Gender Equality, Dietary Laws, Social and Cultural Laws and so on. In short, Qur’an lays down Perfect Checks & Balances to establish a System for Global Peace.

Qur’an emphasizesabsolute perfectness of all that is mentioned in the Qur’an. Allah asked Muhammad[s] to whom the Qur’an was Revealed to throw a Universal and Everlasting Challenge to entire mankind,whether,can anyonebring something better than Qur’an, as mentioned in Sura Qhasas : 28 Aayat : 49 :Say, ˹O Prophet,˺“Bring then a scripture from Allah which is a Better Guide than these two [Toura and Qur’an] so I [Muhammad(s)] may follow it, if your claim is true.”

Qur’an is referred by Allah with other POPULAR NAMESin the Qur’an itself, like [i] Al FURQHAAN : Sura Furqhaan : 25 Aayat : 01 [ii] Al KITAAB : Sura Baqhra : 02 Aayat : 02 [iii] Al QUR’AN : Sura Baqhra : 02 Aayat : 185 [iv] At TANZEEL : Sura Yaaseen : 36 Aayat : 05 [v] Az ZIKR : Sura Hijr : 15 Aayat : 09

Qur’an like the Toura (Torah), Zaboor (Psalms) and Injeel (Gospel / Good News) was a Revelation to Muhammad(s) from Al Mighty God Allah, the Author of all the Four Books mentioned above. The Qur’an testifies the same in Sura Aal e Imran : 03 Aayat : 03, Sura Ma’ida : 05 Aayat : 44&46, Sura Hu’d : 11 Aayat : 110, Sura Bani Isra’e’l : 17 Aayat : 55 and in Sura Baqhra : 02 Aayat : 185.

Hindus refer to book/s revealed from God as Shruti (Sanskrit word). They consider Rig Ved, Athar Ved, YajurVed and SaamVed as Shrutis, as Books Revealed from God. So, for an easy explanation to a Hindu, The Qur’an is The Shruti revealed to Prophet Muhammad[s].

Qur’an was chronologically the last book to be Revealed by Allah to His Last Prophet and His Last Messenger, Muhammad[s]. Al Qur’an : Sura Ahzaab : 33 Aayat : 40

Qur’an, by name, mentions three more Revelations given by Allah to His Prophets and Messengers preceding Muhammad(s). For example,Toura to Moosa(a) [Moses in the Bible], Zaboor to Da’wood(a) [Psalms to David in the Bible] and Injeel to Eesa(a) [Gospel to Jesus Christ in the Bible] respectively.One important thing to understand here is that, Allah does not detail The Method of Revealing Zaboor and Injeel to Daawood(a) and Eesa(a)while mentions only about the Toura given to Moosa(a) in form of tablets, as mentioned in Al Qur’an : Sura Aaraaf : 07 Aayat : 145 to 154.

Allah Testifies in the Qur’an in Sura Baqhra : 02 Aayat : 213, Sura R’ad : 13 Aayat : 07, Sura Nahal : 16 Aayat : 36, Sura Faatir : 35 Aayat : 24, thatAllah Sent Prophets and Messengers at timely intervals, to different places and different Communities of mankind, along with Revelations in the language of the respective Community (Qur’an : Sura Ibraaheem : 14 Aayat : 04)to Guide them in matters of dispute, concerning the permitted and forbidden, the do’s and don’ts, BUT all the Messengers from Aadam(a) [Adam in the Bible] till Eesa ibn e Maryam(a) [Jesus Christ son of Mary in the Bible] came with Revelations from Allah, meant only for a fixed period of time and only for their own community respectively. It was ONLY ONCE in History of Mankind, that Allah Sent a Revelation, THE QUR’AN for ENTIRE MANKIND and made MUHAMMAD[s] THE LAST AND FINAL PROPHET and MESSENGER to ENTIRE MANKIND and not just for his community of Arabs alone.

Al Qur’an in Sura Namal : 27 Aayat : 06 “And verily, you (Muhammad[s]) are receiving the Quran from the One, All-Wise, All-Knowing.” This Aayat testifies Revelation of Qur’an to Muhammad(s) from Allah.

REVELATION OF QUR’AN TO MUHAMMAD(s) :

Qur’an was not Revealed to Muhammad[s] in One Single Night or One Single Day BUT was Revealed to Muhammad[s] for a period of 23 years (lunar). The first Revelation came to Muhammad[s] in one of the odd nights of the last ten days of the Holy Month of Ramazan as mentioned in Qur’an in Sura Baqhra : 02 Aayat : 185;Sura Duqhqhaan : 44 Aayat : 03 and Sura Al Qhadar : 97 Aayat : 01. Muhammad(s) was in the Cave of Hira on Jabl an Noor – Mountain of Noor in Holy City of Makka, in present day Saudi Arabia, then known as Land of Hijaaz. Muhammad(s) was about 40 years old when he[s] received the first Revelation of Qur’an from Allah through Arch Angel Jibrayeel [Gabriel in the Bible] and this Revelation was not of the entire Qur’an but of the First FewAayaat of Sura Alaqha:96th Suraas mentioned by Muhammad[s] himself to his beloved wife, Aayisha[r] in Sahih Buqhari : Vol : 01 H : 03. The last Revelation of Qur’an came to Muhammad[s] when he[s] was about 63 years old.

This is unlike The Toura given to Moosa[a] in the form of Tablets : Qur’an : Sura Aaraaf :07 Aayaat : 145 & 154 .and a similar message is mentioned in the : Bible : Exodus : 32 : 15, 16. Therefore, to explain to the Jews and the Christians, the Muslims say, the same type of Revelation like the Toura is True of the Qur’an as well.

NOTE :  Sura is an Arabic word that is loosely translated in English as Chapter and Aayat is another Arabic word loosely translated in English as Verse. Allah has used the Words Sura and Aayat to explain the Messagein The Qur’an and therefore we must also adhere to these Words even while explaining to Non-Muslims in any language, be it English or otherwise.Moreover, the Muslims regard Sahih Buqhari as the most important and authentic book after the Qur’an and it contains the most authentic Sayings of Muhammad[s] collected by a Great Scholar by the name Muhammad Ismaeel of Buqhara in then Persia (Between 810C.E. to 870C.E.).Other authentic book on the collection of Sayings of Muhammad[s] is called Sahih Muslim of the Scholar Abul AsarAsaakeer ad Deen Muslim popularly known as ImaamMuslim from Neyshabur in then Persia (Between 815C.E. to 875C.E.).

WAH’Y OF THE QUR’AN – What Does It Mean?

In the general sense of the word, the Muslimsconsider Wa’hy to be,the method of Revelation of Qur’an from Allah,to Muhammad(s), through Arch Angel Jibrayeel(a).

Wah’y is an Arabic word derived from the root Waau+Hhaa+ Yaa. The literal meaning of the word Wah’y is,A SIGNIFICANT SIGNAL IN ANY FORM TO CONVEY A MESSAGE.

This signal can be in the form of a strong thought, a form of a voice or a sound, a form of whisper from the unknown, a voice from behind a screen etc…

Wah’y has been used in the Qur’an in different contexts in different places. One can study it, by studying the following references of the Qur’an from : Sura An’am : 06 : 112&121 ; Sura Anfaal : 08 : 12 ; Sura Hu’d : 11 : 37 ; Sura Nahal : 16 : 68 ; Sura Maryam : 19 : 11 ; Sura Qhasas : 28 : 07

Wah’y in the context of Revelation to Prophets from Allah, has been used so commonly and so often, that, the general sense of the word Wah’y is synonymous only to the Revelation of Allah to His Prophets and Messengers.People consider it inappropriate to use word ‘Wa’hy’ for any other thing. Justlike the Arabic Word Hadees, literally means a statement or a saying,but, in Muslim world,Hadeesis a connotation used to describe the Sayings of Muhammad(s), so, the Muslims consider it inappropriate and derogatory to call the term Hadees to the statement of anyone except the saying of Muhammad(s).

Allah Says, “It is not behooving (right) for a human that Allah shall Speak to him EXCEPT by Revelation (Wa’hy) or from behind a partition or that He Reveals to a Messenger a Revelation by His Permission for people whatever He Wills; Undoubtedly He is Most High and Most Wise”. Al Qur’an : Sura Shu’ra : 42 Aayat : 51.

The above Aayat of the Qur’an makes it clear that Islam does not believe in God Incarnation but is a Prophetic Religion, where, Allah chose from mankind the best man of the respective time and appointed him to be the Representative of Allah to Convey the Message from Allah to the people. In Islam, Aadam(a) – Adam in the Bible is considered to be the first Prophet of Allah while Nooh(a)- Noah in the Bible is considered as the First Messenger of Allah. And Muhammad(s) is considered both, The Last and Final Prophet (Nabi) and the Last and Final Messenger (Rasool) of Allah as testified by Allah Himself in Al Qur’an : Sura Ahzaab : 33 Aayat : 40 : “Muḥammad(s) is not the father of any of your men, but is the Messenger of Allah and the Last of the Prophets And Allah has PerfectKnowledge of all things.

Thus, the Message Received from Allah by these Messengers and Prophets is basically called WA’HY OF THE BEST KINDin Islam. Moreover, theMuslim Scholars after studying in great detail the Qur’an and Ahaadees, have categorized the Wa’hy received by Messengers (Rasool) or Prophets (Nabi) from Allah to be of three kinds.

1] THE ANGELIC WA’HY : The angel, almost always Jibarayeel(a), brings from Allah a Message and conveys it to the Prophets of Allah, by the Command and Will of Allah.This Message is then, either recorded in the Book of Allah called as KalaamAllah / KitaabAllah, OR, is conveyedby the Prophet to the people, as a tradition, generally called as Hadees e Qhudsi.

Al Qur’an : Sura Baqhra : 02 Aayat : 97 to 99 ; Sura Shu’ra : 42 Aayat : 51

2]DIRECT DISCOURSE FROM ALLAH : This is a kind of Wa’hy in which there is no interlink with an angel but Prophets Hear a Voice entirely different from any voice of any of the creation and the cognition/expression of which is not possible to be comprehended by the intellect of the entire creation. Only the Prophet who hears it, till the time of listening to it, can recognize its state and ecstatic feeling. One such example is, that Allah Says, …………And to Moosa(a), Allah Spoke Directly. Al Qur’an : Sura Nisa : 04 Aayat : 164

3] WA’HY AT HEART : Is a kind of Wa’hy that is directly inspired to the heart of a Prophet or a Messenger and there is no medium of an angel or a voice or anything else. All Commands of Muhammad(s) recorded in THE BOOKS of AHAADEES (Books of the compilations of the Sayings of Muhammad[s]) and not recited as Revelation of Qur’an are the Wa’hy of Allah inspired directly to the heart of Muhammad(s) by Allah Himself. Moreover, the dreams of the Prophets are also Wa’hy of Allah directed to the hearts of the Prophets. The incident of Ibraaheem(a) deciding to sacrifice his beloved son Ismaaeel(a) was a Wa’hy in the form of a dream as mentioned in Al Qur’an : Sura Saaffaat : 37 Aayat : 102

TYPES OF WA’HY TO MUHAMMAD(s)

If we study the life of Muhammad(s), then, we can conclude that Muhammad(s) received basically Six Types of Wa’hy.

  1. Inspiration in the heart     
  2. Direct Discourse with Allah from behind a veil as happened during The Night of Ascension To Heavens beyondSidrat ul Muntaha i.e. during Shab e Meraaj     
  3. Dreams of Muhammad(s)          
  4. Jibrayeel(a) coming in his original appearance          
  5. Jibrayeel(a) coming in a human form  
  6. Sound like the ringing of bells                

For details kindly study the book AN APPROACH TO QUR’ANIC SCIENCES by Muhammad TaqiUsmani : pages : 39 to 49

Aayisha[r] said that Al-Harith bin Hisham asked Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) “O Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ)! How is the Divine Inspiration revealed to you?” Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) replied, “Sometimes it is (revealed) like the ringing of a bell, this form of Inspiration is the hardest of all and then this state passes off after I have grasped what is inspired. Sometimes the Angel comes in the form of a man and talks to me and I grasp whatever he says.” ‘Aayisha[r] added: Verily, I saw the Prophet (ﷺ) being inspired divinely on a very cold day and noticed the sweat dropping from his forehead (as the Inspiration was over). Sahih Buqhari : Vol : 01 H : 02

TO SUMMARISE, Muhammad(s) received fundamentally QUR’ANIC WA’HY that is technically referred by Muslim Scholars in Arabic as,Wa’hy e Matlu’,meaning, the Revelation for Recitation and that is The Glorious Qur’an AND NON QUR’ANIC WA’HY that is technically referred by Muslim Scholars in Arabic as, Wa’hy e GhaiyrMatlu’ , meaning, the Revelation and Inspiration that does not become the portion of the Qur’an for recitation but is revealed and inspired to Muhammad(s) and he(s) mentions it to his Sahaaba[r] and they record it as Sayings of Muhammad(s). This type of Wa’hy e GhaiyrMatlu’ i.e. Wa’hy not recorded as portion of Qur’an is referred as Hadees (singular) /Ahaadees (plural) and compiled in books other than the Qur’an. The most authentic book on the Compilation of the Sayings of Muhammad(s) and considered unanimously by Sunni Muslims to be the most important after the Qur’an is Sahih Buqhari followed by the book called Sahih Muslim. Other than these two books the most popular books of compilation of the Wa’hy e GhaiyrMatlu’ i.e. Non Qur’anic Revelation or Inspiration are the books called Sunan Abu Da’wood, Ibn e Ma’jah, Sunan at Tirmizi, Musnad Ahmed, Mu’atta Maalik, Sunan An Nisaayee etc. In current times, the Jaami-us-Sahih by SheiqhNaasiruddinAlbaani is considered a milestone on research work on the Sayings of Muhammad(s).

QUR’ANIC WA’HY forms the fundamental most and the basic most teachings of Islam and is the Criterion for all Knowledge on Islam. It is the scale to measure every other knowledge and is the 100% Infallible Word of Allah Alone. Not a single word or alphabet of the Qur’an is the Saying of Muhammad(s) but is rather the Revelation of Allah as a whole, through Angel Jibrayeel(a). It contains every word as exactly Revealed by Allah to Muhammad(s), including the teaching of its method of Recitation, technically called in Arabic as Tajweed(phonetics) and Qir’aat(Right Recitation). Allah Commands Muhammad(s) in Al Qur’an : Sura Qhiyaama : 75Aayaat : 16 to 19 : “Do not hastily move your tongue (to recite and memorize the Revelation of Qur’an). It is certainly upon Us (Allah) to ˹make you(s)˺ memorize and recite it. So, once We have recited a revelation through Jibrayeel(a), likewise repeat its recitation. Then it is surely upon Us to make its explanation clear to you(s).

NON QUR’ANIC WA’HY preserved in the form of traditions of Muhammad(s) called as Hadees / Ahaadees are also a form of Revelation of Allah to Muhammad(s). In this type of Wa’hy, only subject matter was revealed to Muhammad(s), who then expressed it in his(s) own words. This is UNLIKE the Revelation of the Qur’an whose Words and Recitation are also exactly as taught by Allah to Muhammad(s) through Jibrayeel(a). Non Qur’anic Wa’hy is subordinate details and explanations of Islamic Laws done eloquently by none other than Muhammad(s), especially, to teach the methodology of implementing the Commands of Allah on individual self, family, society and in the world.

PRESERVATION OF THE QUR’AN

Without an iota of exaggeration, it can be confirmed that the Qur’an is the only religious book preserved in its original form since the time of its appearance for the first time on earth in about 610C.E.

As Qur’an was not revealed to Muhammad(s) in one single time completely, therefore, its preservation in the form of a book during the lifetime of Muhammad(s) was not a possibility. Allah testifies in Qur’an that it was revealed to Muhammad(s) in Stages as mentioned in Al Qur’an :Sura Nahal : 16 Aayat : 102 ; Al Qur’an :Sura Bani Israeel : 17 Aayat : 106 and Allah Says in Al Qur’an :Sura Furqhaan : 25 Aayat : 32 : The disbelievers say, “If only the Quran had been sent down to him all at once!” We have sent it as suchin stages so We may reassure your heart with it. And We have revealed it at a deliberate pace.

Without paper industry, without printing press and other options of writing something and preserving it as we could easily do today, was impossible in those days of Muhammad(s).

With paper a scarce commodity in those times, the Qur’anic Revelations were primarily preserved by writing mostly on tablets of stones, parchments, leathers, branches of date-trees, pieces of bamboos, leaves of trees, animal bones etc. According to a reference in a book entitled UmdatulQari : Vol : 20 Pg : 17, published by Mumiria Press, Damascus, sometimes pieces of paper were also used to write, in the form the paper, as was available during that time.

BUT

The most important form of preservation of the Qur’an was MEMORIZATION OF THE QUR’AN that till date remains the distinctive feature of the Qur’an’s preservation.

PRESERVATION OF QUR’AN BY MEMORIZATIONHappened in following sequences.

  • Muhammad(s) was directly taught the phonetics and recitation by the Angel Jibrayeel(a) who also taught Muhammad(s) the memorization of the portion of the Qur’an Revealed then and there. Al Qur’an : Sura Nahal : 16 Aayat : 102; Al Qur’an : Sura Qhiyaama : 75Aayaat : 16 to 19
  • Muhammad(s) would then recite the portion Revealed to him and memorized by him, to the male and female Companions present with him immediately at that time and then he would make them memorize the same.
  • These male and female companions who memorized from Muhammad(s), the same portion, they would make their nearest and dearest memorize as taught to them by Muhammad(s). This made different male and female Companions of Muhammad(s) memorize different parts of Qur’an based on what was Revealed to Muhammad(s) when they were present with him.
  • With Sala’h (the specific) obligatory, congregational and canonical method of worshipping Allah is done daily five times throughout the day, the recitation of portions of Qur’an is a must during Sala’h daily. So, this made the person leading Sala’h to obligatorily be a memorizer of a large portion of Qur’an and also those joining him to follow him in the Sal’ah called as Musalli, constantly listen to different portions of Qur’an, at least five times a day.
  • Muhammad(s) said, that in Ramazan of every year, since the Ramazan in which the Qur’an was revealed first time to him (Al Qur’an : Sura Qhadar : 97 Aayat : 01; Al Qur’an : Sura Baqhra : 02 Aayat : 185), Jibrayeel(a) would visit him every day in Ramazan and listen from Muhammad(s) the portion of the Qur’an Revealed to him since beginning of Revelation of Qur’an till the present Ramazan as mentioned in Sahih Buqhari : Vol : 01 H : 06
  • By the time of Muhammad’s(s) demise, Qur’an was not only completely written on different materials portion by portion but there were exclusive memorizers of the entire Qur’an that was completely revealed to Muhammad(s) from among his companions[r]. The most popular of them being Abu Bakar Siddique[r], Umar[r], Usmaan[r], Ali[r], Abdullah ibn e Masood[r], Abdullah ibn e Abbas[r], Mu’aaviya[r], Abdullah bin Umar[r], Amar ibn al Aas[r], Talha[r], Saad bin Waqhqhaas[r], Abu Huraiyra[r], Abdullah bin Zubaiyr[r], Ubaiy ibn e Kaab[r], Mu’az bin Jabal[r], Zaiydbin Saabit[r], Abu MoosaAshri[r], Aayisha[r], Hafsa[r] and several more. Now Qur’an was compulsory to be recited during Sala’h, so, any mistake in recitation was immediately corrected by those standing in rows in Sala’h listening to the recitation of Qur’an being done by the one leading the Sal’ah.
  • Anas bin Malik[r] said: “Four gathered the Qur’an during the time of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ), all of them are from the Ansar: Ubayy bin Ka’b, Mu’adh bin Jabal, Zaid bin Thabit [may Allah be Pleased with them all], and Abu Zaid[r].” I said to Anas[r]: “Who is Abu Zaid[r]?” He said: “One of my uncles.”Tirmizi : Vol : 06 H : 3794
  • During the Caliphate of Abu Bakar Siddique[r], all the parchments were gathered together and the entire Qur’an was for the first time compiled in a book format. According to narration recorded in Sahih Buqhari : Vol : 09 H : 7191: Abu Bakr[r] sent for me[Zaiyd{r}], owing to the large number of casualties in the battle of Al-Yamama, while `Umar[r] was sitting with him. Abu Bakr[r] said (to me), `Umar has come to me and said, ‘A great number of Qaris of the Holy Qur’an were killed on the day of the battle of Al-Yamama, and I am afraid that the casualties among the Qaris of the Qur’an may increase on other battle-fields whereby a large part of the Qur’an may be lost. Therefore, I consider it advisable that you (Abu Bakr[r]) should have the Qur’an collected.’ I said, ‘How dare I do something which Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) did not do?’ `Umar[r] said, By Allah, it is something beneficial.’ `Umar[r] kept on pressing me for that till Allah opened my chest for that for which He had opened the chest of `Umar[r] and I had in that matter, the same opinion as `Umar[r] had.” Abu Bakr[r] then said to me (Zaid[r]), “You are a wise young man and we do not have any suspicion about you, and you used to write the Divine Inspiration for Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ). So, you should search for the fragmentary scripts of the Qur’an and collect it (in one Book).” Zaid[r] further said: By Allah, if Abu Bakr[r] had ordered me to shift a mountain among the mountains from one place to another it would not have been heavier for me than this ordering me to collect the Qur’an. Then I said (to `Umar[r] and Abu Bakr[r]), “How can you do something which Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) did not do?” Abu Bakr[r] said, “By Allah, it is something beneficial.” Zaid[r] added: So he (Abu Bakr[r]) kept on pressing me for that until Allah opened my chest for that for which He had opened the chests of Abu Bakr[r] and `Umar[r], and I had in that matter, the same opinion as theirs. So I started compiling the Qur’an by collecting it from the leafless stalks of the date-palm tree and from the pieces of leather and hides and from the stones, and from the chests of men (who had memorized the Qur’an). I found the last Aayaat of Sura Tauba: Al Qur’an : 09 : 128, 129 : Verily there has come unto you an Apostle (Muhammad) from amongst yourselves—from Qhuza`ima[r] or Abi Qhuza`ima[r] and I added to it the rest of the Sura. The manuscripts of the Qur’an remained with Abu Bakr[r] till Allah took him unto Him. Then it remained with `Umar[r] till Allah took him unto Him, and then with Hafsa[r] bint `Umar[r].
  • According to another narration recorded in Sahih Buqhari : Vol : 06 H : 4987 : Huzaifa bin Al-Yaman[r] came to `Usman[r] at the time when the people of Sham and the people of Iraq were Waging war to conquer Arminya and Adharbijan. Huzaifa[r] was afraid of their (the people of Sham and Iraq) differences in the recitation of the Qur’an, so he said to `Usman[r], “O chief of the Believers! Save this nation before they differ about the Book (Qur’an) as Jews and the Christians did before.” So `Usman[r] sent a message to Hafsa[r] saying, “Send us the manuscripts of the Qur’an so that we may compile the Qur’anic materials in perfect copies and return the manuscripts to you.” Hafsa[r] sent it to `Usman[r]. `Usman[r] then ordered Zaid bin Sa’bit[r], `Abdullah bin Zubair[r], Sa`id bin Al-As[r] and `AbdurRahman bin Harith bin Hisham[r] to rewrite the manuscripts in perfect copies. `Usman[r] said to the three Quraishi men, “In case you disagree with Zaid bin Saabit[r] on any point in the Qur’an, then write it in the dialect of Quraish, the Qur’an was revealed in theirtongue (Qhuraiysh’s dialect and Muhammad[s] was from Qhuraiysh).” They did so, and when they had written many copies, `Usman[r] returned the original manuscripts to Hafsa[r]. `Usman[r] sent to every Muslim province one copy of what they had copied, and ordered that all the other Qur’anic materials, whether written in fragmentary manuscripts or whole copies, be burnt.
  • Till date the entire Qur’an is preserved in its original form

QUR’AN – THE ONLY BOOK IN THE WORLD

  • Is the only religious book or otherwise, to be memorized completely by a child as young as 6 years and less and as old as 66 years and more
  • Is the only Book to be completely memorized by people whose mother tongue is not Arabic, the language in which Qur’an was Revealed to Muhammad(s)
  • Is the only Book whose phonetics and recitation styles are also preserved since the time of Muhammad(s) as finalized by him during the last year of his life
  • Is the onlyBook to claim that it is a Revelation from Allah and is a Word of God as mentioned in Al Qur’an : Sura An’am : 06:19, 92 ; Sura Yusuf : 12 : 02 ; Sura Ta’ha : 20 : 113 ; Sura Namal : 27 : 06 ; Sura Sajda : 32 Aayat : 02, 03 ; Sura Yaaseen : 36 : 05 ; Sura Zumar : 39 : 01 ; Sura Momin : 40 : 02 ; Sura Jaasiya : 45 : 02 ; Sura Rahmaan : 55 Aayat : 01, 02 ; Sura Waaqhia : 56: 80 ; Sura Insaan : 76 : 23
  • Is the only Book that maximally read every day throughout the world
  • Is the only Book that has preserved Arabic language such that the vocabulary used during the time of Muhammad(s) is still in common usage even after more than 1,440 years have passed away since Muhammad(s) first recited the Qur’an
  • Is the only Book on whose usage of language, the grammar of Arabic language is composed. While for all other languages of the world, the grammar is composed first and on its basis the literature and poetry of written books is corrected
  • Is the only Book that invites its disbelievers to prove it not to be a Word of Almighty Allah by finding a single discrepancy in the Message of Qur’an revealed for a period of 23 long lunar years to Muhammad(s) as mentioned in Al Qur’an : Sura Nisa : 04 Aayat : 82
  • Is the only Book whose Author, Allah The Almighty, takes upon Himself, the responsibility of Protecting and Preserving the Message, as mentioned in Al Qur’an : Sura Hijr : 15 Aayat : 09 : It is certainly We Who have Revealed the Reminder (Az Zikr / Al Qur’an)and it is certainly We Who will Preserve it ; Al Qur’an : Sura Fussilat : 41 Aayat : 42 : Falsehood cannot approach it from front or from behind; Revealed by the One Most Wise and All Praiseworthy. Allah did not promise that He will take upon Himself the responsibility to Preserve / Protect the Message of His previously Revealed Books i.e. Toura, Zaboor and Injeel. Nor are any other books of any other religions on earth preserved till date in their form of origin.Encyclopaedia BritannicaVol : 03Pg : 501 : 1950 under the heading Bible, quotes Jewish Historians that except Uzaiyr(a) none knew Toura of Moosa(a) by heart and that after several centuries when he got it re-written even that was destroyed page by page and copy by copy by a Roman King named Anitos Apifonis as mentioned from Jewish sources recorded in Bible Knox Version, Max Millan, London, 1963 
  • Is the only Book whose Author, Allah The Almighty asks Muhammad(s) to declare to the disbelievers that Muhammad(s) will be the first one to follow anything that the disbelievers can get better than what the Qur’an Revealed as a Message and as Law. Allah Says, Say, ˹O Prophet,˺“Bring then a scripture from Allah which is a better guide than these two [Toura& Qur’an], so I may follow it, if your claim is true. Al Qur’an : Sura Qhasas : 28 Aayat : 49
  • Is the only religious Book on earth that has remained UN-CHALLENGED by established scientific facts that are mentioned in Qur’an 1,440 years back, while the science has just discovered and the knowledge of the same was vague during the time of Muhammad(s) when the Qur’an was being Revealed to him[s]. Maurice Bucaille, a born Christian, a French medical doctor and author of a popular book entitled : Et La Bible La Qur’an La Science – The Bible The Qur’an and The Science has detailed about this fact that Qur’an is the only book un-challenged by Modern Science’s established facts that are mentioned in Qur’an 1,440 years ago and discovered by science as late as 21st century Christian era. Maurice Bucaille died in Feb/1998 in Paris, France
  • Is the only Book that Commands women equal rights to the men and this does not mean identical rights

There are several more such unique features of the Qur’an that the person analysing it will keep exploring till eternity.

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF INTERPRETING THE QUR’AN

Like any other Academic field, the Message of the Qur’an too cannot be interpreted by every Tom, Dick and Harry and there are strict principles to be maintained to interpret the meaning of the Message of the Qur’an.

The Muslim Scholars therefore, outright reject the current time ‘SECULAR INTERPRETATIONS’ done by so called ‘MODERN MUSLIMS’ to please the ‘POLITICAL BOSSES’ or to customize lifestyle as demanded by the MODERN OPEN SOCIETY that does not want to bring religion in public domain and want to believe in religion and God according to their respective whims and desires and not according to what is Commanded by God Himself. In other words, it is like every citizen of a country trying to interpret the Constitution of his/her country according to their own respective whims and desires and not believing in interpretations of judicial experts. Or, it is like a person medicating himself / herself without a doctor’s prescription or a student becoming a doctor by understanding the books of his medical syllabus by his / her own interpretations.

All these examples sound weird. Thus, it is more catastrophic to interpret Qur’an by own understanding and not in accordance with principles meant to understand Qur’an as understood, practiced and preached by Muhammad(s) himself, who received the Qur’an from Allah to teach mankind a system to follow till eternity without an iota of change in its meaning, interpretation, ideology and practiced as taught by Allah Himself to Muhammad(s) as mentioned in Al Qur’an : Sura Qhiyaama : 75 Aayat : 16 to 19

The technical word used for interpretation of Qur’an in Arabic is TafseerAl Qur’an and the best meaning in English for this Arabic Terminology is Exegesis of The Qur’an.

There are basically Six Fundamental Principles of the Exegesis of Qur’an. They are :

  1. Explanation of Qur’an from other portions of Qur’an itself         
  2. From the teachings and practice of Muhammad(s)           
  3. From understanding and practice of male and female companions of Muhammad(s)
  4. From understanding and practice of the followers of Sahaaba[r] – Companions of Prophet(s)
  5. From Arabic language as it was used during the time of Muhammad(s)
  6. From common sense using all faculties of comprehension and current knowledge BUT making sure that the understanding does not contradict the fundamentals of Islam

The most popular Exegesis of Qur’an available today to read in English is the Tafseer ibn e Kaseer published from United Kingdom’s DaarusSalaam Publications or Saudi Arabia’s Darus Salaam Publication

Begin typing your search above and press return to search.